Viktor Hamburger (1900-2001) was one of the most important and influential embryologists of the twentieth century. Educated in Germany under Hans Spemann at the University of Freiburg, as a graduate student Hamburger employed the techniques of embryonic tissue transplantation in amphibians that formed the laboratory’s basic research methodology. Hamburger later took that approach to the United States where he applied it to chick embryos, the organism on which all his future research was based.
Allen, Garland, Dletrich, Michael, Huber, Florian. 2016. "Victor Hamburger and Experimental Embryology." MBL History Project digital exhibit. http://history.archives.mbl.edu/exploring/exhibits/viktor-hamburger-and-experimental-embryology
- Allen, Garland E. "A Pact with the Embryo: Viktor Hamburger, Holistic and Mechanistic Philosophy in the Development of Neuroembryology, 1927–1955." Journal of the History of Biology 37 (2004): 421–75.
- Cowan, W. Maxwell "Viktor Hamburger and Rita Levi-Montalcini: The Path to the Discovery of Nerve Growth Factor." Annual Review of Neuroscience 24 (2001): 551–600.
- Hamburger, Viktor. "The Journey of a Neuroembryologist." Annual Review of Neuroscience 12 (1989): 1–12.
- MBL History Project. (2016). Victor Hamburger Papers. https://hpsrepository.asu.edu/handle/10776/9/discover
- Maienschein, Jane. (2011). Maienschein: 100 Years Exploring Life. Charleston: Nabu Press.