Because increased carbon dioxide levels are a major component of a greenhouse effect that warms the earth, it is important to understand from where and how carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere, how much carbon is released, as well as how much carbon is captured from the atmosphere through natural processes. Higher plants, algae, and some bacteria use photosynthesis to transform carbon dioxide into life-based, or organic, carbon. Carbon dioxide is released from the earth’s surface by plants, animals, fungi, and microbes, and industrial processes that use fuels such as wood, coal, and oil. These processes, combined, constitute the global carbon cycle.
In the late 1970s, scientists who studied the earth’s systems knew that carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere were rising, and that fossil fuel combustion was partially responsible for this change. Scientists also knew that forests and land (terrestrial) ecosystems fit into the uptake and release of carbon dioxide, but a lot of uncertainty surrounded the magnitude of terrestrial carbon cycling. While scientists could make fairly accurate assessments about how much carbon was stored in, and flowed to and from, the oceans and atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems are incredibly diverse and dynamic, making them harder to study on an aggregate level.
Stable Isotope Research
- Peterson et al. 1985
- Peterson and Frye, 1987
Computers and the Internet
- LTER Report: Internet and LTERs 1990
- LTER Report: Tech development LTERs 1991
- NSF Report http://www.nsfnet-legacy.org/about.php
Microbiology and Molecular Biology
- Hobbie et al. 1977
Historical Contet of Climate Change Research
- Canadell et al. 1999
Global Carbon Cycle Project
- Houton et al. 1983
- Moore et al. 1981
- Rastetter and Shaver 1992
Processed-based Models TEM and GEM
- Melillo et al. 1993
- Raich et al. 1991
- Rastetter et al. 1991
Long-term Ecological Research at the EC Historical Context
- Hagan 1992, An Entangled Bank
- Hobbie et al., 2006
Arctic Long Term Ecological Research: Toolik Lake, Alaska
- Chris Neill. https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embed...
- Hobbie and Kling, Eds, 2014, Alaska's Changing Arctic: Ecological Consequences for Tundra, Streams, and Lakes
- 1987 LTER NSF proposal
- 1998 LTER NSF proposal
- 2010 LTER NSF prososal
Forest Long Term Ecological Research: Harvard Forest, Massachusetts
- Frey et al. 2013
- LTER 1 grant, 1988 http://harvardforest.fas.harvard.edu/sites/harvard...
- Melillo et al. 2002
Coastal Long Term Ecological Research: Plum Island Sound, Massachusetts
- Hayden et al. 1996 http://atlantic.evsc.virginia.edu/~bph/LTER_LMER/w...
- NSF LTER proposal 1998
- NSF LTER proposal 2002
- Valiela, 1995. Marine Ecological Processes.
- VIMS, Nutrient cycling: http://web.vims.edu/bio/shallowwater/ecosystem_pro...
Ocean Flux Program
- MBL. ND. "Ocean Flux Program." Ecosystems Center a the MBL. http://www.mbl.edu/ecosystems/conte/ofp/
- Chapin III, Stuart F., Pamela A. Matson, Peter M. Vitousek. 2012. Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology. Springer: New York.
- Conte, Maureen. 2014. "Particle Flux in the Deep Sargasso Sea The 35-Year Oceanic Flux Program Time Series." The Official Magazine of the Oceanography Society Oceanorgraphy. 27(1). http://tos.org/oceanography/assets/docs/27-1_conte...
Semester in Environmental Science Program
- The Ecosystems Center Report 2015-2016
- MBL. ND. "Student Projects." Ecosystems Center a the MBL. http://www.mbl.edu/ses/courses/projects/
- MBL. ND. "Semester in Enviromental Science." Ecosystems Center a the MBL. http://www.mbl.edu/ses/